Fusion, Chemistry, Atom, Fusion, Fusion

Due to a bad exactness of their report, only few other scientists were able to replicate their findings in the first location. The findings were subsequently dismissed as due to misunderstandings and bad scientific practice, and the matter of cold fusion has since been considered as a taboo area.

However, some scientists did manage to replicate the findings, and quietly an enormous quantity of positive research findings based on experiments of a lot better quality have been printed. The phenomenon is becoming accepted as a legitimate area of research by steadily more scientists.

However, what is really going on is not well known. Heat production, detected radiation and detected fusion products suggest that some sort of nuclear reaction or combination takes place, but the reactions don’t reveal the amount of radiation and the ratios of products that known hot fusion reactions do. Therefore other names of this phenomenon are often used, such as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or (LENR) or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR).

What’s FUSION

By fusion two or more atomic nuclei, protons or neutrons fuse together to form a new atomic nucleus. These forces are so powerful that they win over the repulsing electromagnetic forces between protons.

However, the strong forces only work at a short distance. Therefore the nucleons (neutrons and protons) must be brought very close together. This is difficult because of the repulsing electromagnetic forces between the protons. In conventional fusion this is accomplished by very substantial temperature and pressure in the fusing material.

A deuterium nucleus consists of on proton and one neutron. Heavy water contains deuterium instead of ordinary hydrogen and is consequently designed D2O. When fusion occurs, this mass difference can’t be lost. It’s converted into kinetic energy and gamma radiation. Therefore fusion of protons, neutrons or kernels of the very lightest elements into heavier elements is a really potent energy source.

One hasn’t been able to generate a controlled combination by high temperature and pressure that yields more energy than the input energy yet. The only practical way one has managed to exploit the energy from warm mix is the hydrogen bomb.

THE PROCESS BEHIND COLD FUSION

There isn’t any fully developed model for cold fusion yet. The theory behind the phenomenon is nevertheless very easy: All particles behave according to quantum mechanical laws. These laws state that the coordinates and energy state of a particle at the same point in time determine the likelihood of finding a particle a place with some given coordinates at another time period, but the exact place can’t be predicted. Actually, a particle can be found anywhere at the other time point, put all places do not have the same probability. Some places are extremely probable, and others are extremely improbable. As a result of this, even a particle that is not in any internet motion nevertheless will shift place randomly to some extend, usually very little, but occasionally more.

By bringing particles and nuclei very near each other by using some force, this will happen: The quantum mechanical behavior will make the particles change their position more or less all the time, and sometimes they get close enough to let the powerful nuclear forces to take actions and cause them to fuse.

According to standard understanding of the conventional theory, this cannot happen in such a degree to be detected. Either the standard theory is not complete, or one has not learned to use the theory in a right fashion. The mathematical apparatus of the theory is so complicated, it is impossible to predict what can happen and what cannot happen with a brief glance at the equations.

Cold fusion differs in many aspects from warm fusion. It is difficult to generate warm fusion of different things than one deuterium and one tritium kernel. By cold fusion, two deuterium kernels readily fuse to helium, and even fusion involving hydrogen kernels (free protons) have been reported.

These are the responses that regular understanding predicts when two deuterium kernels fuse: D + D –> 3He + n, D + D –> T + p, D + D –> 4He + gamma photon.

THE ORIGINAL PONS-FLEISCHMAN SYSTEM

The first experiment exerted by Pons and Fleischmann consisted of these components: A palladium cathode, a nickel anode and a solution of sodium deuteride NaOD (20 percent ) in heavy water D2O. Sodium deuteride is sodium hydroxide with heavy hydrogen (deuterium) in the OH- ion, and therefore designed as OD-.

When electricity was applied to the electrolytic system, deuterium atoms were created at the cathode, and oxygen at the anode. The deuterium atoms went into the palladium crystal lattice in great extend before combining to D2.

Excessive heat was then produced from the electrolytic cell, apart from the electrolytic heat. Helium, tritium and neutrons were also produced, but the latter two goods not in the quantities that would have been generated in a hot fusion. Therefore the fusion reactions in the system are different form those in hot fusion, and probably more complicated.

Only few scientists were able to replicate the results in the first place, because of awful documentation from the originators. However, a number of them succeeded, and slowly the conditions for a satisfactory fusion have been established. The ideal combination occurs when the palladium is somewhat over-saturated, that’s when there are nearly as many atoms of deuterium as those of palladium in the crystal.

The saturation is controlled by the voltage applied, and by utilizing palladium structures composed of very thin layers or very little grains. The electrolysis in itself is only a way to put deuterium into the palladium crystal matrix.

THERE ARE MANY WAYS OF OBTAINING COLD FUSION

As seen, cold fusion processes can be initiated by packing many deuterium kernels to inter-atomic rooms in a crystal lattice. A critical density for beginning a fusion process appears to be the exact same density as in liquid pure deuterium. Since there’s absolutely no fusion process in liquid deuterium, the crystal lattice probably packs the deuterium kernels together in tight sub-microscopic groups with much greater density than the average density in the lattice as a whole, and thus allowing quantum mechanical tunnelling between the kernels in the groups.

There are other electrolytic solutions than that used by Fleischman and Pons that may be utilised in combination with palladium electrodes to acquire cold fusion. By electrolysing a solution of KCL/LiCL/Lid using a palladium anode, signs pointing at cold fusion have been reported, but many attempts of repeating the results have failed.

Any force that’s able to push enough D+ ions to the right kinds of metal crystal lattice, can be used to deliver cold fusion. As an example can signs of fusion be produced by bombarding the right kind of metallic lattice with accelerated D+ – ions.

By an electrical discharge between palladium electrodes in a deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been seen. By such a discharge, plasma composed of D+ ions and electrons will be formed between the electrodes. Since also these D-ions will have a high thermic energy; many of them will be thrown quite near each other. Quantum-mechanical tunnelling can then do the rest of the approaching process, so that fusion can take place.

Also large pressure can be used to push enough deuterium to a metal lattice to give fusion. By way of instance, by having finely divided palladium grains in a pressurized deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been generated, and replicated by other scientists.

Also by reactions where nickel metal and H2 unite, indications of fusion have been detected. Despite the fact that H2 and not D2 has been used, the reaction has still been reported to take place. This points to a very different reaction mechanism than that of warm fusion. Some scientists speculate that hydrogen atoms can exist in quantum countries where the electron and proton are so near each other that the atom responds like a neutron.

By bombarding gas bubbles in a liquid by ultrasonic waves, the bubbles can be brought into an intense oscillation of expansions and collapses synchronized with the noise frequency.

Such oscillating bobbles can send out light by specific frequencies of expansions and collapses, and from the right compositions of the gas. By each fall, the place temperature in the bobble can reach up to 10 mill degrees, even though the average temperature in the complete blending is near room temperature.

When deuterium is present in the oscillating bobbles, fusion has been observed. This fusion is strictly not cold fusion, but resembles hot fusion, and also the procedure sends out neutrons, gamma-rays and tritium atoms as predicted by standard comprehension.

The process hasn’t been reported to produce more energy which that place in, but is supported by independent investigators.

Cold fusion in crystal lattices has been shown to generate more energy than that put in. Experimental 1 MW or more experimental reactors has been set up and demonstrated.

Commercial reactors are by now being developed, but nobody has yet been able to show a reactor with stabile enough operation to be sold on the market. Commercial household heaters seem to be the first type of reactors these companies attempt to develop. The hope of the companies is that these will make a way for greater reactors and uses in the market.

By now it isn’t easy to learn how successful cold fusion will be in the energy market. Cold fusion may make a revolution that provides the world cheap clean energy in enormous quantities, but no one knows yet.

Knut Holt is an internet marketer and consultant focusing on technical and scientific items. To locate: Remote controle helicopters, airplanes, cars and boats. Airsoft guns of all models. Chemistry sets. Electronic sets, transmitters and digital components. Night vision tools: —

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